Some energy storage technologies

Sometimes,electricity is produced excessively, but sometimes it is not enough for the user needs, therefore, it is time for power storage solutions.

 

Nations are currently racing to develop energy storage technologies, many companies and corporations have invested in research to find ways for storing electricity better and more efficiently. The followings are the most popular and moderns to rage technologies today:

 

1. Hydroelectric power

 

Hydroelectricity is a method of using electricity (excessively produced) to pump water from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir (for example, located on a mountain or hill) for storage. When it is lack of electricity or necessary to use much more electricity, Water will be discharged from the upper reservoir into the lower reservoir through an underground pipeline, which will run the turbine to generate power.

 

According to Wikipedia, Hydro power is one of the largest forms of electricity storage today,accounting for more than 90% of all electricity stored worldwide. The Virginia hydroelectric power plant, called "the world's largest battery", has a capacity of more than 3 gigawatts (GW), equivalent to the power produced by the Drax thermal power plant or  Hinkley Point C Nuclear power plant.

 

Hydro electric power is capable of storing a large mount of power, but the biggest drawback is that it requires a mountain or hill to build reservoir. It is therefore not always possible to apply hydro power. The UK does not have many qualified terrain to implement this method. Despite that, they built some remarkable hydropower plants such as Dinorwig in Wales. And like Drax, it’s named as Electric Mountain: both a power plant and a tourist attraction.

 

2. Flywheel and super capacitor systems


  

An energy-saving flywheel system in Paris, France.
 

There is a form of electrical storage for high feedback rates using flywheels and super capacitors. This technology provides fast charging and discharging time as usual batteries.

 

Electricity is used to spin the flywheel at high speed. This process creates the increasing momentum of the flywheel. And when needed, the flywheel releases energy stored by applying torque to the mechanical load, resulting in reducing rotation alspeed. At that moment, the kinetic energy is converted back into electricity.

 

Super capacitors (or double layer capacitors) use a similar approach but still store the power source with the same power source. With the combined functions of the battery and the capacitor, the super capacitor stores energy like a static charge, but unlike normal batteries, it does not have chemical reaction during charging or discharging processes.

 

3. Lithium-ion battery


The Tesla energy storage plant using Lithium-ionbattery.
 

Battery University says lithium-ion battery technology can now power most household electrical appliances thanks to its abundant power and low self-discharge rates. Many companies are working on developing a technology that increases storage capacity and lithium-ion battery life. As a result, the use of lithium-ion batteries will be increasingly widespread, especially in the field of electric vehicles (EVs), security equipment, as well as providing power to the regional and national grid.

 

In southern Australia,Tesla has completed the world’s largest storage facility using Lithium-ion battery. With a capacity of 100 megawatts (MW), it can deliver electricity to 30,000 homes in one hour. This is very useful in times of power shortage or when wind turbines do not produce enough energy.

 

Lithium-ion batteries are currently used most commonly in the field of EVs. However,electric car manufacturers are still facing the challenge of reducing the cost of producing batteries in order to bring electric vehicles to more users.

 

Tesla is said to have done this matter. The company built the giant battery factory, Giga factory, in Nevada desert to increase productivity and reduce production costs.However, Tesla is not considered to achieve breakthroughs in Lithium-ion battery applications.

 

4. Solid battery

 

The disadvantage of most current batteries, used in smart phones or EVs, is that their life cycles do not last long enough. This is what the solid battery can completely fix.

 

According to Wikipedia, the fundamental difference between current popular lithium-ion batteries with solid-state batteries is that they use a liquid electrolyte to regulate the charge current, while solid-state batteries use solid electrolyte.An electrolyte in a battery is a mixture of conductive chemicals that allow the electric current to travel between the cathode and the anode.

 

The Daily News said that the solid-state battery is smaller, cheaper, and more capable of storing energy than a lithium-ion battery. They can also be filled up faster and emit less heat. In the EV field, this will help to deliver better performance, lower costs and safer operations. The only problem is that solid state battery technology is not yet feasible on a large scale. Both Dyson and Toyota are investing largely in this technology, which is expected to be commercially available in 2020.

 

5. Hydrogen fuel cell

 

Hydrogen is one of the most common chemical elements on the Earth, so it will be a great fuelf or any energy technology. Hydrogen fuel cell technology has been developing very fast in recent years, especially in the field of automobiles.

 


Hydrogen Fuel Cell (green one).

 

According to Wikipedia, the energy conversion in hydrogen fuel cells is similar to usual batteries with two electrodes separated by electrolysis. Unlike batteries,hydrogen fuel cells neither lose electricity nor are able to be charged. Fuel cells operate continuously when fuel (hydrogen) and oxidizer (oxygen) are inputed from outside.

 

Hydrogen needs to be provided on a regular basis so that it continues to generate electricity- which results in an increase refueling stations where hydrogen vehicles can be "filled" with hydrogen when the batteries are depleted.

 

Beside,providing fuel for cars, hydrogen fuel cells are also used to power NASA buildings and satellites.

 

6. V2G system

 

Have you ever thought of EV electric cars that can act as energy storage systems? As  it is known that most electric vehicles operate for long periods. The Vehicle to grid (V2G) system can take advantage of this to release the electricity stored in the EVs for transmitting to the grid through charging stations, helping to meet the electricity demand during peak hours. EV cars will then become mini power plants.

 

Nissan and energy provider Enel (Italy) have planned to develop this system. They hope to deploy around 100 car charging stations across the UK. EVs will be connected to this system for charging or re-energizing the national grid when needed.

 

In the V2G model, intelligent charging systems automatically charge and receive electricity from EVs. This model also contributes to carbon emissions reduction from transport vehicles to the environment.

 

7. CAES compressed air system

 

CAES model.
 

The compressed-air energy storage method (CAES) works in the same way ashydro power, but instead of pushing water upwards, excess electricity is used to run the air compressor to pump air into a Large container located under the ground. When it is needed for electricity, compressed air  will be heated, releasing heat energy and turning the turbine to generate electricity.

 

According to the American Energy Association, after the hydroelectric power, compressed air is the second most common form of energy storage. This technology has been steadily growing in recent years, for increasing efficiency and less dependence on fossil fuels to warm the air.

 

And like hydropower, this is a fixed energy storage facility. Compressed air is usually best preserved in geological structures, such as in the rocky mountains or in old salt mines.

 

8. Lead acid battery

 

Although lead acid batteries were invented in 1859, until now it is still widely used. Decades of development have led to cheaper lead acid batteries. Today, lead acid batteries are often used in cars because they can provide the high-voltage currents needed to start a car engine because of the particularly high conductivity of  lead oxide in the positive terminal.

 


Lead acid batteries are commonly used in cars.

 

Lead acid batteries are currently also being developed to store renewable energy sources, especially solar power. The downside of this technology is the use of toxic chemicals, plus short battery life from 300 to 500 charge cycles. However, lead acid battery recycling programs are already offering high efficiency, with 99 percent of US batteries being recycled between 2009 and 2013.

 

The development of the technology has helped to produce lighter batteries, faster recharges and more power storage, but lead acid battery still has its market due to low cost. They are mainly used to store electricity at small scale.

 

9. Redox Flow battery

 

Redox Flow battery with electrolyte liquid is often used for large-scale energy storage systems. Harvard researchers recently created a Redox Flow battery that can operate for 10 years with very low battery life depreciation. This is an ideal battery for storing solar or wind energy.

 

This battery has the advantage of being compact, operating more efficiently and producing with cheaper costs than many other current battery technologies. The current problem is that the Redox Flow battery is still in the research phase and needs some more time to be officially commercial.

 

10. Liquefied petroleum gas

  

Highview Power Storage LPG Plant.
 

Electricity makes the chiller cool down to -196 degrees Celsius and turns it into a compressed liquid in the container. Therefore, electricity has been transferred to liquid storage. When the air comes into contact with the liquid in the pipeline, it will return to gas and turn the turbine to power.

 

One of the major benefits of gas liquefied technology is its high storage capacity: 700 liters of air can be reduced to just 1 liter of liquid gas. In addition, this technology has many potentials to develop because it can take advantage of heat from thermal power plants, steel plants, or liquefied natural gas (LNG).

 

High view Power Storage Company(UK) is testing liquefied petroleum gas technology at a waste treatment plant in Pilisworth, which will provide energy by converting heat from waste incineration into energy.

By Hung


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     Read news
WELCOME LETTER The International Exposition on Technologies and Products for Energy saving and Environment protection in Hai Phong city in 2017 (E&E Expo Haiphong 2017)
The International Exposition on Technologies and Products for Energy saving and Environment protection in Hai Phong city in 2017(E&E Expo Hai Phong 2017) taking place from November 29th to December 2nd 2017 at Viet-Tiep Friendship Labor Cultural Palace, Lach Tray Ward, Ngo Quyen District, Hai Phong City.
Why do not exploit the potential of renewable energy?
Vietnam is considered as a country with great potentials for renewable energy development but it is still in a potential form that has not yet been exploited
Non-fired building materials: Why do not come into life?
Kể từ khi Chính phủ ban hành Quyết định số 567 / QĐ-TTg về chương trình phát triển vật liệu xây không dùng lửa, nhiều doanh nghiệp đã đầu tư máy móc thiết bị để sản xuất. Tuy nhiên, cho đến nay, số lượng vật liệu xây dựng không được sử dụng trong các công trình vẫn còn hạn chế.
Utilizing the waste of coal-fired power plants
According to preliminary calculations, a coal-fired power plant with a capacity of 1,200 MW daily emits about 4,000 tons of fly-ash cinder, of which, there are 85% of fly-ash.
Setting priority for clean energy investment
Vietnam would increase its attractiveness in foreign investment by developing green energy. That is the confirmation of many delegations attending the meeting on the free trade agreement between Europe and Vietnam organized by the European Business Association in Vietnam.
The green growth – The only way
According to Mr. Nguyen The Phuong, Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Planning and Investment, in order to develop renewable energy for green growth, the government should support electricity price from renewable energy because of higher price than thermal electricity, and hydroelectric.
Recycling waste – a resource has been left open
The recycling and reuse of waste resources are trends applied in many countries, contributing to environmental protection and resource savings. However, the recycling waste has not now been adequately paid attention.
The Government encourages investment in renewable energy
Striving to the year of 2030, electricity production in Vietnam from renewable energy will account for 30% of the national energy structure. Therefore, the Government encourage investment in renewable energy.

Energy Conservation and Cleaner Production Center of Hai Phong City
Add: No. 104 Nguyen Duc Canh - Hai Phong
Tel: (84) 313 7340488 * Fax: (84) 313 630 626
Email: ecc-hpc@haiphong.gov.vn
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